Inclusive decision-making


Inclusive decision-making is essential to gaining support from a great majority of people, which in turn facilitates implementation.


A discussion in which everyone’s interests or point of view are considered, leading to a shared, qualitative and better solution.


Step 1: Collect all the different perspectives.

Step 2: Explicitly ask for perspectives/feelings/arguments that have not yet been mentioned. Stress the importance of putting everything on the table. Make it safe to voice a divergent opinion!

Step 3: Discuss the various perspectives (e.g. ask who can empathize with what has been said by others). Summarize the perspective of the majority.

Step 4:  Incorporate the wisdom of the minority by asking: what would it take for you to agree with the majority perspective? What can we add to the perspective/solution of the majority to accommodate the minority? Try to incorporate as much as possible.

Step 5: Make a decision. If incorporating the wisdom of the minority into the majority perspective still fails after 3 attempts, go fishing and dive into the undercurrent (see related practices)


When important issues are discussed such as direction, vision, mission and solutions for key problems.

Skills and necessary training

Have a look at the Deep Democracy methodology or complete training on this method. 

Critical success factor

Creating a strong enough sense of security to ensure that everything below the surface is put on the table. People must be assured that there will be no consequences whatsoever regarding what they say. Guarantee that as a leader.

Possible workshop exercise

Discuss a topic following the above method.